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Residential Steel National Building Standard Design
Source:Laing Time:2015-10-08
For a long time, China's housing construction in brick and concrete structure and reinforced concrete structures based. Traditional residential structure since the major, at the same time, due to the thickness of the wall, high beam, pillars, and makes the space utilization is low, deep into the small bay, inflexible layout.
 
Steel residential system is composed of building envelope and steel supporting structure composed of residential system, it is a new residential energy-saving and land-based system. It abandoned the solid clay steel housing, efficient use of land resources. Compared with the traditional steel residential housing, the use of function, design, construction and overall economic aspects of advantages, mainly in the following aspects:
 
- To better meet the use of space building large bays, separated by flexible requirements, increase the use of an area of ​​5 to 8 percent.
 
- High-strength lightweight steel structure system, reduce the weight of the building structure, which greatly reduces the cost basis, can reduce transportation and rigging costs.
 
- Steel easy stereotypes, standardization, can be industrial production, construction quality easy to guarantee. Enables members and site assembly of prefabricated construction, to achieve technology integration, improve the technological content and use of the residential function, in line with the requirements of the housing industry.
 
- Lightweight composite panels and steel structure supporting the use of new materials such as composite floor meet building energy efficiency and environmental protection requirements, to meet the energy requirements of the standard.
 
- Steel ductility, high integrity, building seismic, wind performance is good.
 
- Construction speed, short cycle, and the construction work that is less weather and seasonal effects.
 
- Easy transformation and demolition. Material recovery and recycling rate is high.
 
In 2003 the Ministry of Construction issued a mandate the preparation of "steel residential" National Building Standard Design Atlas.
 
Standard Design Atlas editor unit of China Building Standard Design and Research Institute and the Ministry of Housing Industrialization Promotion Center and the Technology Development Promotion Center, by the China Building Standard Design and Research Institute is responsible for preparing the organization. On the basis of the preparation of group large collection of information, research, demonstration projects conscientiously sum up experiences and learn from foreign advanced experience, prepared the "steel residential" national building standards designed Atlas, for architectural design, real estate developers and construction construction units.
 
The steel structure of the residential characteristics of the "Steel house" portfolio is divided into two, namely "Steel Residential (a)" (05J910-1) and "Steel housing (b)" (05J910-2).
 
Each album chart focus on each type of steel residential architecture, wall structure, roof and floor systems and technology system requirements are detailed in words and building construction detail and expressed the structure and practices of the stairs connection structure and the ground floor, the connection structure and the wall of windows and doors, walls and foundation, walls and floor, wall and roof and other connection structure as well as the walls, floor, floor, roof engineering practices.
 
First, the "steel housing (i)" Atlas "Steel R (A)" portfolio includes cold-formed steel ribbed system and light steel frame system.
 
(A) cold-formed steel ribbed system
 
Ribbed cold-formed steel structural members using the system: at room temperature, roll forming of galvanized (or galvanized) steel thin-walled. Using C-shaped steel U-shaped cross section. Wall thickness of 0.45 to 2.5 mm. When the coating weight is generally not less than 180 g / square meter, or in highly corrosive coastal sites and have special requirements, galvanized amount should be greater than 275 g / square meter.
 
Structural panels for walls OSB (OSB board thickness not less than 11 mm), plywood and cement chipboard (thickness not less than 12 mm). Exterior wall thickness of the inner panel of not less than 12 mm of plasterboard or cement particle board. C-shaped or U-shaped keel between the plate and the inner plate structure (keel spacing of 400 to 600 mm), filled with glass wool between the keel. Outer structural panels based on building energy efficiency design standards, laying insulation layer (thickness by thermal calculation). External finishes for wood, metal, fiber cement or PVC siding, but also for masonry finishes (only one). Court vapor barrier wall is provided to prevent moisture insulation materials, and ensure air permeability of the wall. Keel plate and fixed with self-tapping anchor.
 
Roof system using cold-formed thin-walled steel roof trusses. Roof is OSB, plywood or cement chipboard and other structural panels. There are waterproof layer on the roof, under the insulation layer (thickness by the thermal calculation, design criteria meet the energy requirements). Color cement tile, linoleum tile or color steel tile roof. Roofing should adopt sloping roof, gradient of 1: 4 to 1: 1.
 
Floor using cold-formed steel floor beam, upper structural panels, laminated layer 50 thick cement perlite cast on the plate. Floor surface layer of wood, brick or stone and so on.
 
(B) light steel frame system
 
Light steel frame system is based on the load-bearing frame of hot-rolled H-beam (or beam), high-frequency welding H type and cold-formed square tube and other components constituted composite walls or infilled as a steel structure housing envelope structure system.
 
Atlases wallboard is fly ash as filler to sulphoaluminate as binder, polystyrene foam (EPS) as a core material, reinforced with fiberglass mesh as materials, made in the factory a light sheet. Sheet and light steel frame, with a special adhesive bonding between plate and sheet. In order to prevent thermal bridges with double sheet.
 
Second, the "steel housing (B)" "Steel R (B)" portfolio includes four kinds of steel structures:
Steel framework, steel frame - support system, steel frame - shear wall system and a steel frame - concrete core wall system, as well as the above-mentioned four kinds of systems in facades, walls, floors, roofing and other building parts of the building construction detail and stairs , pipeline layout. Atlases are also incorporated into the steel protection, lightning protection and grounding, etc. Residential Steel also practical engineering experience and practice as a series in the portfolio after the appendix, for designers reference.
 
Select (a) architecture
 
According to engineering practice, common architecture can be chosen with reference to the following areas:
 
4 to 6 layers of steel framework, steel frame - support system, steel frame - shear wall system; 7 to 12 layers of steel frame - concrete tube (shear) system.
 
-Section steel members should use hot-rolled H-beam, high-frequency welding H-beam steel and concrete.
 
(B) Construction layout
 
Column grid layout should rule, should adopt a dwelling unit or dwelling units, modular, modular butt, miswired and symmetrical concave (convex) then stitching and other changes to adapt to the general layout.
 
When the module using a small column grid, should be combined with floor and pipeline design; the module using a large column grid, pipeline facilities design should focus on stereotypes positioning control, and electrical and communication lines along the wall of the cavity, skirting, hanging mirror line or press the top line layout.
 
Kitchen, bathroom located near the concrete core wall or concrete wall, to avoid steel bearing member to facilitate fireproof steel components, embalmed.
 
 
Vertical line focus tube wells or pipes arranged in the wall, or the use of prefabrication site installation bundle.
 
Toilet using the same drainage layer. Use double pipe central heating systems, and the use of temperature regulation control valve and heat meter. The use of steel and other potential characteristics make natural grounding connection.
 
 
(C) wall
 
Steel framework, steel frame - support system, steel frame - concrete tube (shear) system facades can be filled with small concrete block wall, autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete panels, precast concrete panels, steel mesh polystyrene sandwich board, fiber cement siding, polyurethane composite wall panels, composite panels embossed metal surface. Interior glass fiber-reinforced gypsum can be hollow, fiber cement board perfusion (foam concrete) walls, lightweight composite wall panels and so on.
 
(D) Roof System
 
1, the flat roof with steel beams (I-beam, C-shaped steel), precast reinforced concrete roof, done on insulation, waterproof layer.
 
2, sloping roof with portal frame, truss, metal frame trusses (bracket), I-shaped (or C-shaped) and steel purlins, colored cement tile, colored steel tiles and colored asphalt tile roof. Sloping roof should also be insulated, waterproof layer. Insulation layer thickness is determined by the thermal calculation, design criteria meet the energy requirements.
 
Steel residential development in line with the national protection of arable land, energy saving industrial technology policy, but also one mode of production to achieve the housing industry. Steel residential development is the trend. With the national development of energy-saving and land-dwelling, strategic decision to build a conservation-oriented society and the housing industry further China's economic development has become a new growth point, steel residential development will be the only way for the development of the housing industry.
 
At present, China's steel housing industry has entered a new stage of development, the relevant normative standards and building standards have been promulgated and implemented the design, combined with ample domestic steel supply, there are a number of pilot and demonstration projects steel residential construction experience and technology results, development of steel housing already has a good material and technical basis. Of course, different types of structures to promote and improve the design specifications and construction technical standards, the development of new lightweight materials and insulation wall supporting the residential parts of the problem, a lot of work needs to be done. At the same time, but also to widely publicize the advantages of steel residential development, so that more developers, designers and users recognize understand steel housing.

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